While the UK is subject to the interim agreement with the EU, British citizens travelling to Europe only need their passports to enter other Member States. But that will change after the Brexit transition period and, from the end of 2022, ETIAS will be a prerequisite for British citizens. Whether or not a bilateral agreement is reached, the EU has stated that applicants under the age of 18 or over 70 will not have to pay for the ETIAS visa exemption. Visa liberalisation negotiations between the EU and the Western Balkans (excluding Kosovo) began in the first half of 2008 and ended in 2009 (for Montenegro, Northern Macedonia and Serbia) and 2010 (for Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Prior to the total abolition of visas, the countries of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia and Serbia) had signed “visa easing agreements” with the Schengen states in 2008. Visa facilitation agreements should, at the time, reduce wait times, reduce visa fees (including free visas for certain categories of travellers) and reduce red tape. In practice, however, the new procedures have proven to be longer, heavier and more costly, and many have complained about the ease of obtaining visas before mediation agreements come into force.    However, from the end of 2022, visitors from countries with visa-free agreements with the EU (including the United Kingdom) will no longer be able to enter the Schengen area solely with their passports. The European Commission has confirmed that British citizens must pay a fee to visit Europe and complete the ETIAS online application form before leaving. This is due to the fact that a deal between Britain and the EU to keep many things equal 11 months after Brexit is coming to an end. There have been or have there been projects for Lithuania-Russia, Poland-Belarus, Bulgaria-Serbia and Bulgaria-Northern Macedonia on cross-border transport.  The agreement between Poland and Belarus was due to enter into force in 2012, but was delayed by Belarus without a transposition date (october 2012).
 Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreements with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or by helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (including customs) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders. The United Kingdom Coordination Group of the European Parliament recently drafted a resolution in which a reciprocal agreement on visa-free between the two countries is needed after negotiations begin. This would allow eu and UK travellers to continue travelling for tourism, education, research, training and youth exchanges. Of the 27 EU Member States, 22 are participating in the Schengen area. Of the five EU Member States that are not part of the Schengen area, four – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – are legally required to join the territory in the future, while the other – Ireland – maintains an opt-out.